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Convection is energy transfer through motion of within the fluid resulting
in transport and mixing of the properties of the fluid. In
oceanography, convection plays a role in the transfer of heat away from
the ocean. As the air near the warm sea surface gets heated, it expands
and rises, carrying the heat away. In physical oceanography, the sinking
of surface waters to form deep water masses, a process of fundamental
importance for ocean climate and the maintenance of a stably stratified
world ocean. There are two main types of deep convection, the physics of
which are very different. The first is convection near an open boundary,
which involves the formation of a dense water mass which reaches the
bottom of the ocean by descending a continental slope. The second type is
open-ocean deep convection, where the sinking occurs far from land and is
predominantly vertical.
Huschke, R.E. 1959. Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological
Association, Boston, MA. See also: Pickard, G.L. and W.J. Emery. 1990.
Descriptive Physical Oceanography: An Introduction. Pergamon Press, NY
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